Try about the Advancement and History of Plate Tectonics
Plate tectonics emanates from two words; plate and tectonic. Plate in geological phrases suggests a substantial slab of tough rock whilst tectonics in Greek implies’ to build’. Therefore’ plate tectonic might be outlined as how the earth’s is created on going the plate. It can even be well-defined as being a rigid segment from the Earth’s lithosphere that moves separately from these encompassing it (Rodger, 1993). Theory of plate tectonics states which the lithosphere on the earth is designed up of particular person plates which are fragmented into various large and small pieces of solid rock. The plates shift following to each other in addition to the reduce mantle to generate varied sorts of plate borders that have formed the Earth’s landscape around many a long time. (Oreske & Legrand, 2001). Alfred Wegener, a popular meteorologist, is known to be the founder in the plate tectonic concept; He noticed the coastline of East South America and that of west coast of Africa seemed to fit together in a jigsaw manner like to form a bigger plate. He then proposed an idea that all plates (continents) were once connected to a single huge plate called Pangaea which gradually began to drift apart above 300 million years ago (Rodger, 1993). More scientific research over the plates’ coastline revealed that all the plate of earth’s continent somehow fit together. The idea was commonly known as continental drift theory, and Wegener became the founder of the concept on which scientist have based their research on. However, Alfred Wegener plate tectonics idea could not ascertain how exactly the continents drifted away from every other. He proposed the earth’s rotations and the centrifugal forces towards the equator as one on the possible mechanism for continental drift. He said that Pangaea started at South Pole and earth’s rotation finally caused it to break up, sending continents toward the equator. His theories were discarded by the scientific community (Rodger, 1993). Arthur Holmes, (1929), a British geologist, came up with the theory of thermal convection to explain the gradual drift from the Earth’s continents. He based on heating and cooling cycle in the Earth’s mantle that caused the continents to transfer. The idea has been borrowed by scientist community in their quest for earth’s shape. Today scientist have researched and analyzed past evidences and findings by geologist and scientist to expound and come up with a better ways of explaining plate tectonic concept and forces that were behind the drifting in the plates. It is believed and proofed using geological evidence that earth’s plate at one time was one super plate called Pangaea. Due to three main driving forces namely, mantle convection, gravity, and the Earth’s rotation led to the drifting away of a number of plate from the main one. A number of major plates (continents) were formed which include North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Indo-Australian, Pacific, and Antarctica. Expounding around the three main driving forces for the movement with the Earth’s tectonic plates; Mantle convection is the most extensively studied technique of tectonic plate movement. It was widely discussed by Holmes in 1929, in his principle. The huge convection current of molten material in the Earth’s upper mantle produces a lot of energies which is transferred to decreased mantle. The reduce mantle material finds their way to the crust causing the embedded rock to transfer out and away from the ridge thus going the plate. Evidence of this is shown at mid-ocean ridges. Gravity is evidenced by the mid-ocean ridges where the elevation is higher than the bordering ocean floor. Convection currents within the Earth cause decrease mantle material to rise and spread away from the ridge, causing the older material to flow toward the ocean floor due to gravity and aid in the movement in the plates. Then lastly earth rotation is caused by centrifugal forces as earth rotates (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Plates form different sorts of boundary as they interact with their movement. Some from the boundaries formed include Divergent boundaries form when a plate breaks along certain lines of weakness and transfer away from every single other forming a new crust, for instance, Mid-ocean ridges. The other boundary is called Convergent boundaries and is created when two plates collide with one another causing the sinking of one plate below the other. Transform boundaries forms at location where new crust created and without destroying it. Today, through research, scientists have come up with a number of evidences proving that earth plates were once super plate which split into the current Continents. Some with the evidences include: the jig-saw fitting of the East coast of South America and west coast of Africa appear to fit into one another; Fossils remains of plants and animals collected by scientist around the world showed similarities that were challenging to explain unless continents had once been joined. For instance, Cynognathus was a land reptile. Its Fossils remains have been found in both Africa and South America, thus proving the two continents were once joined (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Scientist have also found out from the evidence of earthquakes happened continually and occurred along certain lines, near the boundaries between tectonic plates. As Wegener’s ideas forms the basis why the landscape of your earth is the way it is, scientist community have currently advanced methodology of studying the plate tectonic principle. They use satellite to study evidences of plate tectonic where they position it several kilometers away from the earth surface. From the satellite statistics, it is evidenced which the plates shift linearly and away from every other at the speed of 10mm to 100mm per year, thus, proving the plate tectonic concept that is earth was once plate which gradually drifted apart around millions of years back to form buy cheap assignment online the current continents.
Oreskes, N., & LeGrand, H. E. (2001). Plate tectonics: An insider’s historical past from the modern concept in the Earth. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. Rogers, J. J. W. (1993). A background on the earth. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.