Try about the advancement and history of plate tectonics
Plate tectonics comes from two words plate and tectonic. Plate in geological phrases means a substantial slab of tricky rock even though tectonics in Greek implies’ to build’. Therefore’ plate tectonic might be described as how the earth’s is built on relocating the plate. It could also be well-defined for a rigid section of the Earth’s lithosphere that moves separately from these encompassing it (Rodger, 1993). Principle of plate tectonics states that the lithosphere of the earth is manufactured up of specific plates that happen to be fragmented into various substantial and small parts of strong rock. The plates move next to each other along with the lessen mantle to build various styles of plate borders that have shaped the Earth’s landscape in excess of several many years.(Oreskes & Legrand, 2001). Alfred Wegener, a popular meteorologist, is known to be the founder of the plate tectonic theory; He noticed that the coastline of East South America and that of west coast of Africa seemed to fit together in a jigsaw manner like to form a bigger plate. He then proposed an idea that all plates (continents) were connected to a single big plate called Pangaea which gradually began to drift apart about 300 million decades ago (Rodger, 1993). More scientific research around the plates’ coastline revealed that all the plate of earth’s continent somehow fit together. The principle was commonly known as continental drift concept, and Wegener became the founder on the concept on which scientist have based their research on. However, Alfred Wegener plate tectonics idea could not ascertain how exactly the continents drifted away from each and every other. He proposed the earth’s rotations and the mba essay writing service centrifugal forces towards the equator as the mechanism for continental drift. He said that Pangaea started at South Pole and earth’s rotation finally caused it to break up, sending continents toward the equator. His theories were discarded by the scientific community (Rodger, 1993). Arthur Holmes, (1929), a British geologist, came up with the concept of thermal convection to explain the gradual drift from the Earth’s continents. He based on heating and cooling cycle on the Earth’s mantle that caused the continents to move. The idea has been borrowed by scientist community in their quest for earth’s shape. Today scientist have researched and analyzed past evidences and findings by geologist and scientist to expound and come up with a better ways of explaining plate tectonic concept and forces that were behind the drifting from the plates. It is believed and proofed using geological evidence that earth’s plate at one time was one super plate called Pangaea. Due to three main driving forces namely, mantle convection, gravity, and the Earth’s rotation led to the drifting away of various plate from the main one. Numerous major plates (continents) were formed which include North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Indo-Australian, Pacific, and Antarctica. Expounding to the three main driving forces for the movement of your Earth’s tectonic plates; Mantle convection is the most extensively studied technique of tectonic plate movement. It was widely discussed by Holmes in 1929, in his theory. The large convection current of molten material in the Earth’s upper mantle produces a lot of energies which is transferred to lower mantle. The decrease mantle material finds their way to the crust causing the embedded rock to move out and away from the ridge thus transferring the plate. Evidence of this is shown at mid-ocean ridges. Gravity is evidenced by the mid-ocean ridges where the elevation is higher than the encompassing ocean floor. Convection currents within the Earth cause lower mantle material to rise and spread away from the ridge, causing the older material to flow toward the ocean floor due to gravity and aid in the movement of the plates. Then lastly earth rotation is caused by centrifugal forces as earth rotates (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Plates form different forms of boundary as they interact with their movement. Some with the boundaries formed include Divergent boundaries form when a plate breaks along certain lines of weakness and go away from every single other forming a new crust, for instance, Mid-ocean ridges. The other boundary is called Convergent boundaries and is created when two plates collide with one another causing the sinking of one plate below the other. Transform boundaries forms at location where new crust created and without destroying it. Today, through research, scientists have come up with many evidences proving that earth plates were once super plate which split into the current Continents. Some in the evidences include: the jig-saw fitting of the East coast of South America and west coast of Africa appear to fit into one another; Fossils remains of plants and animals collected by scientist around the world showed similarities that were tough to explain unless continents had once been joined. For instance, Cynognathus was a land reptile. Its Fossils remains have been found in both Africa and South America, thus proving which the two continents were once joined (Oreskes $ Legrand., 2001). Scientist have also found out from the evidence of earthquakes happened continually and occurred along certain lines, near the boundaries between tectonic plates. As Wegener’s ideas forms the basis why the landscape in the earth is the way it is, scientist community currently advanced methodology of studying the plate tectonic theory. They use satellite to study evidences of plate tectonic where they position it lots of kilometers away from the earth surface. From the satellite statistics, it is evidenced the plates transfer linearly and away from each individual other at the speed of 10mm to 100mm per year.
Oreskes, N., & LeGrand, H. E. (2001). Plate tectonics: An insider’s record of your modern theory of the Earth. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. Rogers, J. J. W. (1993). A record from the earth. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.